Critics find this procedure too dependent on individual intuition, and have proposed various remedies. On one proposal, conflicting general principles are "specified" to yield compatible norms for a specific case. On another, the general principles are supplemented or replaced by a larger number of prohibitions drawn from "common sense" morality. On a "bottom up" alternative drawn from Medieval casuistry, it is richly described paradigm cases, not principles, that have the central role in moral reasoning. Other proposals would dispense with principles altogether in favor of professional virtues (integrity, fiduciary responsibility, compassion); the central concerns of "care ethics" (response to need, dependency, trust); and/or "narratives" sensitively constructed from conversations with patients, families, and other attendants.
There are four basic principles of medical ethics. Each addresses a value that arises in interactions between providers and patients. The principles address the issue of fairness, honesty, and respect for fellow human beings.